ザイ, つみ

guilt, sin, crime, fault, blame, offense

JLPT3 G5 S13 F732

The relevant seal inscription form is # (nose) + 辛 needle/cutting tool → criminal marked for life by having his nose cut off (compare ) → *crime*; *sin*; *guilt*; *accuse*; *punish*; *mistake*. As the atop 辛 form was uncomfortably similar to the character (emperor), it was eventually transformed into atop 非.

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