ダン, た.つ, ことわ.る, さだ.める
severance, decline, refuse, apologize, warn, dismiss, prohibit, decision, judgement, cutting
JLPT3 G5 S11 F338
斤# ax + the right-hand element of 繼 (sever threads) → *sever* a curving, pendent object → *cut/break* (off); *stop*; *act/do* (resolutely); *disappear* → *decision* (← resolute decision ← decisive cut; compare 判, 裁, 決 and 折) → *refuse*; *reject*; *decline* (a request) (← negative decision on a request) → *prohibit*. Also, *permission* (← favorable decision granting permission) and *ask permission* (← request a decision). *Give notice/warning*, *abstain from* and *quit* (a bad habit) are from the original sense of severance. Also, *make an excuse* (← give reasons for a faulty act ← give reasons for a decision).
[Full Kanji Etymology List]